Therapeutic Applications of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Paracrine Effects and Potential Improvements


Doorn, J. and Moll, G. and Blanc, K. le and Blitterswijk, C.A. van and Boer, J. de (2012) Therapeutic Applications of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Paracrine Effects and Potential Improvements. Tissue engineering. Part B: Reviews, 18 (2). 101 - 116. ISSN 1937-3368

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Abstract:Among the various types of cell-to-cell signaling, paracrine signaling comprises those signals that are trans-
mitted over short distances between different cell types. In the human body, secreted growth factors and
cytokines instruct, among others, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the hematopoietic stem cell
(HSC) niche, stromal cells provide instructive cues to stem cells via paracrine signaling and one of these cell
types, known to secrete a broad panel of growth factors and cytokines, is mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).
The factors secreted by MSCs have trophic, immunomodulatory, antiapoptotic, and proangiogenic properties,
and their paracrine profile varies according to their initial activation by various stimuli. MSCs are currently
studied as treatment for inflammatory diseases such as graft-versus-host disease and Crohn’s disease, but also as
treatment for myocardial infarct and solid organ transplantation. In addition, MSCs are investigated for their use
in tissue engineering applications, in which their differentiation plays an important role, but as we have recently
demonstrated, their trophic factors may also be involved. Furthermore, a functional improvement of MSCs
might be obtained after preconditioning or tailoring the cells themselves. Also, the way the cells are clinically
administered may be specialized for specific therapeutic scenarios. In this review we will first discuss the HSC
niche, in which MSCs were recently identified and are thought to play an instructive and supportive role. We
will then evaluate therapeutic applications that currently try to utilize the trophic and/or immunomodulatory
properties of MSCs, and we will also discuss new options to enhance their therapeutic effects.
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Copyright:© 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc
Science and Technology (TNW)
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