Phase equilibria and physical properties of CO2-saturated cocoa butter mixtures at elevated pressures

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Venter, M.J. and Willems, P. and Kareth, S. and Weidner, E. and Kuipers, N.J.M. and Haan de, A.B. (2007) Phase equilibria and physical properties of CO2-saturated cocoa butter mixtures at elevated pressures. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 41 (2). pp. 195-203. ISSN 0896-8446

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Abstract:The melting point and phase behaviour of cocoa butter under CO2 pressure were observed in a high-pressure view cell. The melting point decreases from 35 to 23 °C at CO2 pressures higher than 5 MPa. A static analytical procedure was used to measure the solubility of CO2 in cocoa butter at 40, 80 and 100 °C and pressures of 2–35 MPa in an autoclave set-up. The density and viscosity of the CO2-saturated cocoa butter was measured simultaneously in this set-up. The experimental procedure was first validated by comparing the data measured for the system CO2/hexadecane with literature data. The highest solubility of CO2 in cocoa butter of 36 wt.% occurs at 40 °C and 35 MPa. The measured solubilities differed from those previously reported in literature. This can be attributed to differences in the cocoa butter used for measurements. The density of CO2-saturated cocoa butter increases with pressure, whereas the viscosity decreases. The Grunberg equation was used to correlate the viscosity of CO2-saturated cocoa butter. The measured data were used to estimate the theoretical gas assisted mechanical expression (GAME) yields. In GAME CO2-saturated cocoa nibs are mechanically expressed. The calculated GAME yields deviate from the experimental ones due to the oversimplification of the mechanism involved in GAME.
Item Type:Article
Copyright:© 2007 Elsevier
Faculty:
Science and Technology (TNW)
Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/publications/78568
Official URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2006.10.010
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