Amine based solvent for CO2 absorption "From molecular structure to process"


Singh, Prachi (2011) Amine based solvent for CO2 absorption "From molecular structure to process". thesis.

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Abstract:Global warming is a well-known, worldwide concern, most probably caused by
increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere,
due to human activities. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) offers the opportunity to
reduce the CO2 emissions associated with the use of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture
with a regenerable solvent is considered a mature technology and already successfully
applied as CO2 removal technology in industrial applications. In order to make this
technology more economical for post-combustion capture, especially in the power-sector,
solvents which require less energy and lead to lower solvent loss- and corrosion rates in
this application are needed. In this thesis, the development of improved, energy efficient
amine based solvents is targeted, through experimental (screening) work and by a further
understanding of the role of molecular structure on the solvent absorption properties for
amine-based solvents in a CO2 absorption process.
Various molecular structural effects like carbon chain length, steric hindrance, functional
groups and different configurations of cyclic amines have been investigated by quantum
mechanical calculations. Furthermore, solvent screening experiments for CO2 absorption
and regeneration were performed to identify above-mentioned molecular structural
effects. 1,6 Hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and 1,6 Hexanediamine, N,N' dimethyl
(HMDA, N’N’) were identified as a potential solvent for CO2 absorption in this study.
Solubility experiments for CO2 absorption were performed for 0.5, 1 and 2.5 mole/L
aqueous solutions of HMDA at 20, 30 and 40°C. CO2 absorption kinetics for aqueous solutions of HMDA and HMDA, N,N’ were determined at concentrations ranging from
0.5 to 2.5 mole/L and temperatures from 10 to 30°C. Based on above experiments, new
solvent formulations for CO2 recovery from flue gas were tested in a continuous flow
pilot plant located at Shell Technology Centre, Amsterdam. The two most promising
solvents tested in this study showed attractive properties for CO2 removal from flue gas
and an almost 50% reduction in energy consumption, when compared to the commonly
used MEA solvent. This work is expected to benefit the development of even better
solvents for CO2 capture in the future.
Item Type:Thesis
Science and Technology (TNW)
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