Towards dense, realistic granular media in 2D
Luding, Stefan (2009) Towards dense, realistic granular media in 2D. Nonlinearity, 22 (12). R101R146. ISSN 09517715
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Abstract:  The development of an applicable theory for granular matter  with both qualitative and quantitative value  is a challenging prospect, given the multitude of states, phases and (industrial) situations it has to cover. Given the general balance equations for mass, momentum and energy, the limiting case of dilute and almost elastic granular gases, where kinetic theory works perfectly well, is the starting point.
In most systems, low density coexists with very high density, where the latter is an open problem for kinetic theory. Furthermore, many additional nonlinear phenomena and material properties are important in realistic granular media, involving, e.g.: (i) multiparticle interactions and elasticity (ii) strong dissipation, (iii) friction, (iv) longrange forces and wet contacts, (v) wide particle size distributions and (vi) various particle shapes. Note that, while some of these issues are more relevant for high density, others are important for both low and high densities; some of them can be dealt with by means of kinetic theory, some cannot. This paper is a review of recent progress towards more realistic models for dense granular media in 2D, even though most of the observations, conclusions and corrections given are qualitatively true also in 3D. Starting from an elastic, frictionless and monodisperse hard sphere gas, the (continuum) balance equations of mass, momentum and energy are given. The equation of state, the (Navier–Stokes level) transport coefficients and the energydensity dissipation rate are considered. Several corrections are applied to those constitutive material laws  one by one  in order to account for the realistic physical effects and properties listed above. 
Item Type:  Article 
Copyright:  © 2009 IOP Publishing 
Faculty:  Engineering Technology (CTW) 
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Link to this item:  http://purl.utwente.nl/publications/72376 
Official URL:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/09517715/22/12/R01 
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