Pandyan, A. and Hermens, H.J. and Johnson, G. (2008) Spasticity. In: G. Adelman & B.H. Smith (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 153-163. ISBN 9780080450469

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Abstract:Any lesion in the descending tracts of the central nervous system (CNS), at any level (i.e. cortex, internal capsule, brain stem, or spinal cord), can lead to a combination of sensorimotor symptoms, including spasticity (Table 1). Spasticity, a neurological impairment, is a common feature in a variety of neurological disorders, such as stroke, cerebral palsy, brain injury, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis. It is believed that spasticity contributes to contracture development, exacerbates pain, and hinders recovery of functional movement. Therefore, substantial effort has been invested in managing this clinical condition and in developing an understanding of it.
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