Impact on soft sand: Void collapse and jet formation


Lohse, Detlef and Bergmann, Raymond and Mikkelsen, Rene and Zeilstra, Christiaan and Meer, Devaraj van der and Versluis, Michel and Weele, Ko van der and Hoef, Martin van der and Kuipers, Hans (2004) Impact on soft sand: Void collapse and jet formation. Physical Review Letters, 93 (19). pp. 198003-1. ISSN 0031-9007

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Abstract:Very fine sand is prepared in a well-defined and fully decompactified state by letting gas bubble through it. After turning off the gas stream, a steel ball is dropped on the sand. On impact of the ball, sand is blown away in all directions ("splash") and an impact crater forms. When this cavity collapses, a granular jet emerges and is driven straight into the air. A second jet goes downwards into the air bubble entrained during the process, thus pushing surface material deep into the ground. The air bubble rises slowly towards the surface, causing a granular eruption. In addition to the experiments and the discrete particle simulations we present a simple continuum theory to account for the void collapse leading to the formation of the upward and downward jets.
Item Type:Article
Additional information:See also " Science News" 166, page 19 (July 10, 2004)
Copyright:© 2004 The American Physical Society
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