Systematic Comparison of HF CMOS Transconductors


Klumperink, Eric A.M. and Nauta, Bram (2003) Systematic Comparison of HF CMOS Transconductors. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and digital signal processing, 50 (10). pp. 728-741. ISSN 1057-7130

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Abstract:Transconductors are commonly used as active elements in high-frequency (HF) filters, amplifiers, mixers, and oscillators. This paper reviews transconductor design by focusing on the V-I kernel that determines the key transconductor properties. Based on bandwidth considerations, simple V-I kernels with few or no internal nodes are preferred. In a systematic way, virtually all simple kernels published in literature are generated. This is done in two steps: 1) basic 3-terminal transconductors are covered and 2) then five different techniques to combine two of them in a composite V-I kernel. In order to compare transconductors in a fair way, a normalized signal-to-noise ratio (NSNR) is defined. The basic V-I kernels and the five classes of composite V-I kernels are then compared, leading to insight in the key mechanisms that affect NSNR. Symbolic equations are derived to estimate NSNR, while simulations with more advanced MOSFET models verify the results. The results show a strong tradeoff between NSNR and transconductance tuning range. Resistively generated MOSFETs render the best NSNR results and are robust for future technology developments.
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Copyright:© 2003 IEEE
Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS)
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