Neuroelectronic interfacing with cultured multielectrode arrays toward a cultured probe


Rutten, Wim and Mouveroux, Jean-Marie and Buitenweg, Jan and Heida, Ciska and Ruardij, Teun and Marani, Enrico and Lakke, Egbert (2001) Neuroelectronic interfacing with cultured multielectrode arrays toward a cultured probe. Proceedings of the IEEE, 89 (7). pp. 1013-1029. ISSN 0018-9219

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Abstract:Efficient and selective electrical stimulation and recording of neural activity in peripheral, spinal, or central pathways requires multielectrode arrays at micrometer scale. ¿Cultured probe¿ devices are being developed, i.e., cell-cultured planar multielectrode arrays (MEAs). They may enhance efficiency and selectivity because neural cells have been grown over and around each electrode site as electrode-specific local networks. If, after implantation, collateral sprouts branch from a motor fiber (ventral horn area) and if they can be guided and contacted to each ¿host¿ network, a very selective and efficient interface will result. Four basic aspects of the design and development of a cultured probe, coated with rat cortical or dorsal root ganglion neurons, are described. First, the importance of optimization of the cell-electrode contact is presented. It turns out that impedance spectroscopy, and detailed modeling of the electrode-cell interface, is a very helpful technique, which shows whether a cell is covering an electrode and how strong the sealing is. Second, the dielectrophoretic trapping method directs cells efficiently to desired spots on the substrate, and cells remain viable after the treatment. The number of cells trapped is dependent on the electric field parameters and the occurrence of a secondary force, a fluid flow (as a result of field-induced heating). It was found that the viability of trapped cortical cells was not influenced by the electric field. Third, cells must adhere to the surface of the substrate and form networks, which are locally confined, to one electrode site. For that, chemical modification of the substrate and electrode areas with various coatings, such as polyethyleneimine (PEI) and fluorocarbon monolayers promotes or inhibits adhesion of cells. Finally, it is shown how PEI patterning, by a stamping technique, successfully guides outgrowth of collaterals from a neonatal rat lumbar spinal cord explant, after six days in culture
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Copyright:©2001 IEEE
Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS)
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