Bicontinuous nanoporous polymers by carbon dioxide foaming

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Krause, B. and Münüklü, P. and Vegt van der, N.F.A. and Wessling, M. and Sijbesma, H.P. (2001) Bicontinuous nanoporous polymers by carbon dioxide foaming. Macromolecules, 34 (25). pp. 8792-8801. ISSN 0024-9297

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Abstract:We investigate the physical foaming process of glassy poly(ether imide) and poly(ether sulfone) using carbon dioxide and report temperature-concentration diagrams ("foam diagrams") marking out the foaming envelope in which dense CO2-saturated films expand and microvoids are introduced. Two types of porosities are observed. Closed microcellular structures occur at carbon dioxide saturation levels below 50 cm3 (STP)/cm3 (polymer); nanoporous bicontinuous (open) structures with pore sizes as small as 40 nm occur above this CO2 concentration threshold, which is identical for both polymers. The cellular-to-bicontinuous transition is characterized in detail on the basis of gas permeation measurements and is represented as a separate window inside the foaming diagram. In this paper, the transition to bicontinuous structures is reported for the first time, and its generic physical basis is critically reviewed.
Item Type:Article
Copyright:© 2001 American Chemical Society
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Science and Technology (TNW)
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Link to this item:http://purl.utwente.nl/publications/36589
Official URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma010854j
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Metis ID: 202459